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classification of metal forming process

2.10(a). Figure 2.15 shows the process of drawing tubular component from an annular sheet disc. In this process, the billet is pressed through fluid pressure, therefore, the billet material does not spread to touch the cylinder wall. To cover the entire circumference either the fixture carrying the die sets is rotated or the rotating tool axis is oscillated around the work piece axis. Metallurgy, Metal Formation, Processes, Classification of Metal Forming Processes. It may involve making a pre-form which is finally forged in an impression die in which the extra material is squeezed out into gutter space through a flat restriction which forms flash. Similarly, in open die forging in Fig. (2.34) may be generated. The process illustrated by the figure is called tube sinking, i.e. A fixed tool of the shape of a bar is fixed at the center. Privacy Policy 9. Tractrix curve is a special profile in which radius of curvature continuously increases. In this test, the sheet is firmly clamped between the two annular flat work-piece holding dies and a spherical punch is pressed on to the sheet at its center with the help of nut and screw arrangement. The length of groove required for generating the required extrusion pressure can be calculated. (Fig. This is carried out by providing braking beads or shoulders in die and blank holding plate. The equipment of (Fig. Figure 2.14(c) shows another example of forming with the help of hydraulic pressure. Thus the flange material flows under radial tension and compression by blank holding plate. Rolling, stamping, spinning, drawing, stretch, rubber pad, super plastic, peen, explosive and magnetic pulse forming etc. If you like this article, don’t forget to share it on social networks. Based on Temperature of Working i. Uploader Agreement. 1. Hydrostatic extrusion process is illustrated in Fig. The difference is that in spinning only axi- symmetric components can be made while in this method a large variety of circular and non- circular shapes may be generated. Examples are forging, extrusion, rolling, indenting, coining, etc. Strip is continuously bent by roller dies to make the tubular form which is then seam welded with the help of rotating circular electrodes (Fig. There are other thread rolling processes too. General classification i. The sheet along with the supporting frame is pushed down against the fixed tool with the help of pneumatic cylinders. When the metal forming process done below its recrystallization temperature, it is known as cold working process. 2.5(b) illustrates thread rolling between two flat threaded dies. The ends of sheet are pulled while a die is pressed against the sheet surface. Similarly plate rolling mill for rolling plates. In this method an even number of splines may be rolled because two rolls, placed diametrically opposite on shaft, roll two splines in one go. 2.7 and illustrated in Fig. Prohibited Content 3. Coining and gear forging are examples of closed die forging Figs. (Fig. 2.8(a, b). Content Guidelines 2. 2.5(c). Plagiarism Prevention 5. The axial force facilitates the flow of metal into the die cavity. Before uploading and sharing your knowledge on this site, please read the following pages: 1. Several repeats of the cycle are required to get the desired angle of bend and accuracy. Hence there is no cylinder-wall friction and full press capacity is used for extrusion. The example of forming processes are sheet metal manufacturing, forging, rolling, extrusion, wire drawing, thread rolling, rotary swinging, and so on. A similar state of stress prevails in tube drawing as well, which is illustrated in Fig. The method consists of incremental forming with the help of general purpose ball or roller ended tools similar to those used in spinning. Figure 2.14(a) shows the process of stretch forming of sheet. Rolling of spur gears is illustrated in Fig. If the temperature of the metal exceeds its recrystallization temperature, the process is called hot rolling, otherwise is called cold rolling. Forming of metals at temperatures just above the solidus line but below liquid us is being developed and is called forming in mashy state. It requires less force compare to cold working. Required fields are marked *. Pieces of sheet or strips are bent in V-shaped or U-shaped tools (Fig. Metal forming processes can be carried out in Hot or Cold conditions. Metal forming is one of the most useful processes of converting work piece into desire shape.Metal forming depends on yield strength of material. Cold Working iii. The outer ring of free-wheels is also manufactured by a similar process. Figure 2.14(b) illustrates forming of tubular work piece with the help of hydraulic pressure and an axial force. In these processes the plastic state is reached by application of uni-axial or multi-axial compressive forces. Comparison of metal forming processesComparison of metal forming processes 34. The direct extrusion is shown in Fig. The taper die surface exerts compressive reaction on the wire material as shown in Fig. Your email address will not be published. In the rolling process in Fig. The recrystallization temperature is about one third of the melting temperature of most of the metals. Figure 2.31 shows that just above the solidus line there is steep drop of flow stress. With further pressing of the punch a neck formation may occur in the sheet and a crack may appear on the outer surface of the sheet. It accomplish by internal and residual stresses. Each reduction is called roll pass. These two processes involve both shear forming and bending, Spinning, illustrated in Fig. The idea is to use small diameter rolls in which case the rolling load is less compared to that in large diameter rolls. The figure shows rolling of ball bearing cups used in bicycles. 2.12(a). The force applied by press ram and the constraint of cylinder walls produce compressive forces all around on the work piece. Rolling ii. A forming tool having hemispherical end is fixed to the spindle of the machine and for forming it is pressed and moved around the fixed tool in a specified path determined by the program fed to NC/CNC machine. The process of roll-forging is used for rolling of small components, Fig. It provide good surface finish because no oxide form at surfaces. For rolling of each of these sections a number of rolling machines generally called rolling stands are employed. to deformed the raw material. Report a Violation 11. As the bending progresses the layers below the surface successively become plastic. Figure 2.6(c) illustrates axial rolling which is used for rolling of spherical balls. Various types of sheet metal forming process and their features will be discussed here. The successful continuous extrusion device is illustrated in Fig. The process involves several cycles of heating and cooling (Fig. Copyright 10. This is followed by a number of processes for reducing the diameter and the thickness of tubes in order to obtain the desired diameter and thickness. The experimental rig of the process, shown in Fig. At the other end of the shoe a die with a hole of desired shape is fixed. The process is used for rolling of ball bearing races, rail-wheel-tyres and other thick rings used in many different applications. The main benefit of forming at that temperature is that extremely low forces are required. Underwater Welder Salary -How Much They Earn? tube drawing without a mandrel. For making cylindrical shape, the sheet or plate is bent between three rolls in a roll bending machine, Fig. The properties of metal at the bend are not much affected by multiple heating and cooling. 2.2(a) the metal ingot or sheet is pressed between two rotating rolls. For making seamless tubes solid bars are pierced in hot state in a piercing process illustrated in Fig. Forming is the most widely used sheet metal operation used for manufacturing various sheet metal components across the industry. 2.12). The process is used for manufacture of circular as well as non-circular bars and tubes, angle sections, beams of various cross-sections, etc.

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